UNIVERSITY OF THE BRICKLAYERS ("MURATORI")
Università dei Muratori, Scalpellini ed Arti Congeneri
della Città di Gubbio - Innocenzo Migliarini - ONLUS
(University of Bricklayers, Stone-cutters and similar arts of Gubbio)
Via Angelico Fabbri, 2
06024 Gubbio (PG)
The University of the Bricklayers is the heir of the antique "Art of Stoneworkers" ("Petraioli"), which is already mentioned in the statute of the free Comune of Gubbio in 1338. In fact, in the latter, the "Stoneworkers", "Haberdashers" ("Merciai") and "Donkey owners" ("Asinari") were asked to unite in the market square and to carry three big Ceri (Candles) all together, merrily, through the streets of the city right to the Church of St. Ubaldo.
The activity of this medieval corporation is regulated by a statute already since 1369, in which the edition is known in vulgar language in 1584: "Breve dell'Arte delli Maestri delle Pietre" which imposes its members to:
- always make a good job of their work;
- take the place of another master, to complete an incompleted work, only if the first one had been paid;
- to maintain good relationships between workers and masters;
- work without fraud;
- respect, by not working, the religious feasts;
- honour St. Ubaldo, patron of Art, by going to the mass in his church every first Sunday of the month.
- take part in funerals of all the members;
- participate in the Festa of the Ceri: " …by going to the place where the cero is at 6 p.m. and go all together up to the church of St. Ubaldo";
- to fix up the Cero of St. Ubaldo, dividing the expenses between everyone else.
The Art of Stone Masters was an association governed by a directive council composed of two Captains, extracted from a "Bussolo" (box) by four councillors and a treasurer.
Towards the end of the 1700, the Association's economical situation had become difficult, the expenses to organize the corsa of the Ceri had increased greatly. In 1795 it was decided to make a new Cero of St. Ubaldo, lighter than the old one and the work was handed to 40 bricklayers under the guide of 4 captains.
It was the period of great political instability in Europe: on 31st December 1797 the troups of Napoleon Bonaparte entered in Gubbio,
After a few months (7/7/1798) the University of Bricklayers and the Congregation of "Merciari" (Merchants) (who directed the cero of St. Giorgio) were suppressed, but while the latter disappeared, leaving the necessary expenses to "maintain" S. Giorgio to the Comune, the Masters of the Bricklayers instead continued existing and even illegally secretly nominated their four captains.
Dopo qualche mese (7 luglio 1798) venivano soppresse sia l'Università dei Muratori, sia la Congregazione dei "Merciari" (Commercianti) (che gestiva il cero di S.Giorgio), ma mentre quest'ultima sparì, lasciando al Comune le spese necessarie per "mandare" S.Giorgio, i Maestri Muratori invece continuarono a vivere e, anche nell'illegalità, continuarono a nominare in segreto i quattro capitani. All this contributed to saving the festa in the moment in which the napoleonic rule wished to suppress it (1811): in that moment the vitality of the festa and the defence which Diamante Tei, son of the comunal secretary, had taken on behalf of the ceri, addressed to the representatives of the french government, allowed the festa to continue.
With the fall of the napoleonic rule, things did not return to its original way. The University of the Muratori had to wait until 1851, when, thanks to the bishop Giuseppe Pecci (1841-1855) and to a new statute, regained the right to celebrate the Mass, the public extraction of the Captains and the luncheon.
The University reflourished. In 1887 it adapted its own statute, becoming a Society of Mutual Help which had the aim of helping its members materially. And it maintained this function until the first years of the 1900s.
As far as the direction of the Cero of St. Antonio is concerned, storically given in the hands of the "Asinari" ("Donkey owners") (farmers), in 1887 this also passed over to the Comune.
But, in 1891, thanks to Giuseppe Vantaggi, the University of the Muratori had the duty to, with the Comunal Administration, handle the complete organization of the Festa of the Ceri! And up to today it still does so. While the Comune has the finantial responsibility of the festa including the reparations of the Ceri.
Therefore in 1891 the First Captain of the Cero of St. Ubaldo, Vantaggi Giuseppe, became the First Captain of the Ceri!
From then onwards the Captains of the Ceri were always chosen from the members of this University:
see the list
Today the University of Bricklayers, Stone-cutters and Similar Arts of the city of Gubbio - Innocenzo Migliarini - erected as Moral Society with the Decree of the President of the Regional Council of the Region of Umbria on the 14th May 1980, n°419, from the 25th June 1998 is called ONLUS (Unlucrative organization for Social Utility).
In its statute it confirms the heredity and continuation of the traditions of the medieval corporation "Ars Magistrum Lapidarum".
The University is named after the bricklayer member "Innocenzo Migliarini", deceased in the massacre of the Forty Martyrs on the 22nd June 1944.
The University is represented by:
- Promoting and protecting the art of building in its various forms;
- Protecting and assisting the members even materially in the case of illness or poverty;
- Organizing the Festa of the Ceri;
- Nominating the First and Second Captain, according to the procedure of extraction from the "Bossolo" (box);
- Providing for, as the tradition wants, the maintenance of the Church of St.Francesco della Pace, also called Church of "Muratori" (bricklayers), in which the statues of the Ceri are kept.
: Aleandro Alunno
: Secondo Lupatelli
: Umberto Vispi
: Celso Pierotti
: Romolo Angeloni, Vittorio Baldelli, Ubaldo Baldelli, Giuseppe Ercoli,
Antonio Fiorucci, Cesare Marchegiani, Franco Monacelli,
Carlo Nardelli, Massimo Panfili, Giovanni Pierotti.