When the period of barbaric invasion ended, in the first half of 1100, EUGUBIUM again became a "city state", and was rebuilt on its actual place, with the help of its bishop
while it was previously situated lower down, around the roman theatre.
In those years the first communal employments as for example consuls, the captain of the people and the mayor.
In fact, it soon became a free commune, first guelphan, then ghibelline and then preferred as such by the imperators such as Federico Barbarossa, who gave them numerous important privileges. Consequently it became definitely guelphan.
During this period it went through many battles with the neighbouring cities.
In the year 115
allied against Gubbio, but the city beat all its avversaries with such victories which seemed to be miraculous because of the intervention of the bishop St. Ubaldo.
In the second half of the year 1100, the city was enlarged towards the mountain and it is there that the public buildings were constructed, symbols of the institutions of the citizens, as the
(constructed on the site where the Palazzo Ducale in future was built).
But the battles never ended: those with Perugia were particularly long and difficult. Nevertheless, Gubbio flourished and the population grew to about 50.000 inhabitants, in fact, in the second half of the year 1200 many famous buildings were constructed,
Capitano del Popolo
the churches of
which represented the centre of an urbanistic establishment in the shape of a cross which, in fact, divided the city into four quarters: St. Andrea, St. Pietro, St. Giuliano and St. Martino.
In the same period the walls of the city were enlarged (towards the plains of the city) and the construction of
At the beginning of the year 1300, apart from the
(built on the place of the previous one, which resulted small and insufficient), the
Church of S. Maria dei Laici (dei Bianchi)
with annexed the hospital and the
Palazzo of the Bargello
the great public and private buildings were built and still today are examples of great importance. In fact, in the year 1321 the construction of the monumental complex represented by the
Palazzo del Popolo (of the Consoli)
Palazzo del Podestà
(mayor's building) and of the Piazza Pensile (hanging piazza) on a point of separation of the four quarters. In this way a directional centre was formed which was not included in any specific quarter, but touched them all.
In 1338, the year in which the Palazzo of the Consoli was inaugurated, the
new Statute of the Commune
was published, and it assured political rights to all citizens. The city was governed by two citizen magistratures (the Consuls and the General Council) and by two magistrates coming from other cities (the mayor and the captain of the people).
The Consuls are those who hold the power in their hands. They are chosen, two for every quarter, among the inhabitants belonging to the middle class, not younger that 30 years old, and have to belong to the guelphan party. They are succeeded, in two, every two months at the head of the government of the city.
The Consuls have an enormous political power, but they cannot spend the public finances without the permission of the General Council.
The General Council, whose charge lasts for six months, has the legislative power, it is formed by councellors of the people (50 for every quarter) and by representatives of the richest families (40 for every quarter).
The Mayor comes from another city, his duties are judicial and amministrative. He remains in charge for six months.
The Captain of the People, who also comes from another city, has judicial, administrative and political power. Being the representative of the people, he can convoke the General Council.
The first half of 1300 was the period of great development of the
Corporations of art and crafts
These Corporations, of which there were seventeen, united in associations all those who had the same crafts and arts, were regulated by precise statutes, played an important part in the socialization of its members, also offered economical guarantees in difficult moments, like illness and unemployment. The Captains of arts also participated in the elections of the magistrates of the city.